Comprehensive Peace Agreement
January 9, 2005
After years of conflict, a Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Sudanese government and southern Sudan is signed. Southern Sudan is made a semi-autonomous region and guaranteed a referendum on independence within six years.
Salva Kiir elected president
April 15, 2010
Salva Kiir Mayardit is elected president of southern Sudan with 93% of the vote.
Sudanese people vote
January 15, 2011
Southern Sudanese people vote to decide whether to secede from Sudan. Nationals around the world cast their votes.
South Sudan separates
February 7, 2011
With an overwhelming 98% of the vote, southern Sudan votes to separate from Sudan.
July 9, 2011
After decades of fighting with the north, South Sudan is recognized as an independent nation.
July 24, 2013
President Kiir fires his entire Cabinet, including Vice President Riek Machar.
December 15, 2013
After a few months of relative calm, violence erupts and fighting breaks out between government forces and soldiers loyal to Machar.
January 23, 2014
The South Sudanese government and Machar’s forces sign a cease-fire.
Over one million flee
March 27, 2014
UN reports that more than a million have fled their homes, including over 800,00 internally displaced.
Over two million displaced
August 25, 2015
The UN estimates that more than 2.2 million have been displaced due to the fighting, which is also causing food shortages and increasing rates of disease.
August 26, 2015
President Kiir signs a new peace deal with Riek Machar after threats of UN sanctions.
January 29, 2016
President Kiir reinstates Riek Machar as Vice President as a part of a deal to end South Sudan’s civil war. He is sworn in in April.
Fighting begins again
July 7, 2016
Fighting breaks out between government forces and soldiers loyal to Vice President Machar. Hundreds are left dead, and Machar flees the country.
Machar removed again
July 23, 2016
President Kiir removes Riek Machar as Vice President for the second time, replacing him with Taban Deng Gai. Machar’s camp calls the replacement illegal.
Huge numbers flee South Sudan
August 2, 2016
UN High Commissioner for Refugees says more than 60,000 people have fled South Sudan since July due to fighting.
UN concerned by conflict
November 11, 2016
UN warns that South Sudan is at risk of “outright ethnic war.”
November 18, 2016
US seeks arms embargo against South Sudan through the UN Security Council.
South Sudan arms embargo blocked
December 23, 2016
UN blocks US-backed arms embargo against South Sudan.
South Sudan rejects peacekeepers
January 11, 2017
South Sudan rejects additional UN peacekeepers, citing improved security situation.
Confidential UN report
January 17, 2017
Reuters cites a confidential UN report, calling for “credible pressure” to be applied to South Sudan.
Growing numbers flee
February 10, 2017
UN High Commissioner for Refugees says that number of refugees who have fled South Sudan tops 1.5 million.